After the implosion of the Soviet Union in December 1991,post-Soviet Russia is still struggling to establish a modern market economy,modernize its industrial base,and maintain strong economic growth.The period 1992-1998 was marked by a poor business climate, deterioration in already shabby living standards, and failure to institute modern market reforms.Conditions improved markedly in1999-2002,with annual output growing by an average 6% and with progress in structural reforms.Russia has a wide natural resource base,including major deposits of oil,natural gas,coal,many strategic minerals and timber.For most foreigners,Russia is often associated with two main cities,Moscow and St.Petersburg.This is the heartland of former Imperial Russia,and these great and ancient cities often become the focus for most tourists visiting Russia.Moscow, with its traditional ancient Russian churches and the beautiful Kremlin, and Saint Petersburg,which is the most European of all Russian cities,are the highlights of the great country.However there is much more to Russia,a country that spans eleven time zones and two continents,ending less than 50 miles from North America.It covers the major part of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia,bordering the Arctic Ocean,between Europe and the North Pacific Ocean.Within this vast expanse lies the largest freshwater lake in the world, the Baikal,rivers and forests, teeming with fish and wildlife,Europe’s tallest peak (Mount Elbrus),awe inspiring volcanoes,and towering mountains. Featuring broad plain terrain with low hills west of Urals;vast coniferous forest and tundra in Siberia,uplands and mountains along southern border regions, Russia is the largest country on earth in terms of area, with enormous tracts of land that have been opened to travelers only in the last few years.Its climate ranges from humid continental in much of European Russia through steppes in the south;subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north .Winters vary from cool along the Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summers vary from warm in the steppes to cool along the Arctic coast.Throwing off the traditions of communist uniformity,Russia today becomes a nation of diversity and tremendous vitality.Cultural traditions of a great country have re-awakened with a newfound strength.Ancient architectural monuments and cathedrals neglected and ruined in Soviet times are being rebuilt and restored .Colorful markets hum with activity once again,and literature and the arts are quickly regaining their creative power.A new Russia is in full bloom now.And international visitors are attracted more and more by this great country with honest and hospitable people,magnificent culture,ethnical and nature diversity,unbounded open lands ,beautiful forests,mountains,lakes, beating pulses of bright and lively cities and calm rhythms of quite and measure living in remote country towns and villages.
The biggest cities in Russia
Moscow is the capital of Russia,the largest city in the country and Europe,and one of the largest cities in the world.Moscow refers to global cities having a great influence on the world because of its high economic level and population.It is the main transport hub of Russia,its political, economic,cultural,and scientific center.Moscow is located in the center of the European part of Russia, between the rivers Oka and Volga.Moscow is the largest Russian financial center. About half of Russian banks are located in Moscow.Most of the largest companies are registered and have head offices in Moscow,although their manufactures might be located thousands of km from the city.The city is the most important center of retail sales in Russia.Moscow represents about 30% of all commodities sold in Russia.Moscow is also a large scientific center.There are a lot of scientific research institutes carrying out research in many branches,such as nuclear power, microelectronics,space exploration and other promising directions. Moscow has been the largest transport hub of Russia throughout its history.The city is located in the very center of the hub of railways and highways.The main airports are Vnukovo International Airport, Domodedovo International Airport and Sheremetyevo International Airport.There are 9 railway stations in Moscow:Belorussky,Kursky, Kievsky,Kazansky,Paveletsky,Rizhsky,Savelovsky,Yaroslavsky, Leningradsky.Moscow is the central hub of Russian federal highways heading different directions and connecting the city with other administrative centers of the country and bordering states.Since 1935, the underground railway has been in action in the city.Today, it is the main means of transportation within the capital of Russia.On average, the Moscow Metro carries about 7 million passengers per day.The climate is moderate continental:heavy frosts and extreme heat are rare .The average temperature in January-minus 7.2 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 20.4 degrees Celsius.The population of Moscow is about 12,550,000,the area-2,561 sq.km.
The name of the city as well as the names of many other cities around the world, is bound with the name of the river it is standing on (Moskva River).The river was called this way long before the settlement appeared.It is unknown who named it and what this name means. There are two main versions:Finnio-Ugric and Slavic.According to the first one,the word “Moskva” is derived from the Finno-Ugric language group which means “river-bear”.The Slavic theory points to the stem “mosk” denoting “marshy” or “moisture,liquid,marshland,dampness” .The real age of Moscow is not known.There are some myths saying that the foundation of Moscow took place in ancient times.The first trustworthy chronicle which mentioned the settlement is the Ipatyev Chronicle,saying that on Saturday,April 4,1147,the prince Yury Dolgoruky received his friends and allies headed by the prince Svyatoslav Olgovich in a small town called Moskov.In the early 13th century,Moscow became the center of principality for the first time. In the first half of the 15th century, the town gradually became more and more important. This fact was directly bound with the Tatar-Mongol yoke. The Golden Horde put the Russian principalities under its tribute.Its systematic raids on the Rus’ destroyed the land, and the princes were obligated to get permissions to rule from the Horde.At the end of the 15th century,Moscow became the capital of the largest Russian state, and,at the beginning of the 16th century-the capital of a unified Russian state.In 1712 ,the capital of Russia was moved to a newly built town of St.Petersburg but Moscow remained the place where emperors were crowned.In 1754,by Catherine’s II order,Michail Lomonosov founded the Moscow University.During the War of 1812, Moscow was captured by Napoleon’s troops and heavily damaged by fire. According to various estimates, up to 80% of the buildings were destroyed.The recovery process lasted for more than thirty years.The Cathedral of Christ the Savior was built.By the end of the 19th century,trams appeared in Moscow.In 1918,Moscow became the capital of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.A new Soviet epoch began in the history of the city.Moscow became the main city of the country,the importance of the city increased enormously.In the winter of 1941-1942,the Moscow Battle took place.This was the first land victory over Nazi Germany in the Second World War.
Moscow Places of interest
Moscow is one of the largest cultural and tourist centers of Europe and the world.There are a lot of different places of interest in the city-various historical,cultural,and architectural sites as well as entertainment centers.The Kremlin, the Bolshoi Theater,A.S.Pushkin Fine Arts Museum,and Tretyakov Gallery are among the most famous Moscow sights.Such sights as the Novodevichy monastery and Kolomenskoye estate are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The hyperboloid design of Shuhovskaya tower and Ostankino TV tower are unique.
Saint Petersburg Flag
Saint Petersburg City
Petersburg is a city of federal importance of Russia,an administrative center of the Leningrad region and the Northwestern Federal District.It is located in the north-west of Russia,on the shore of the Gulf of Finland,at the mouth of the Neva River. St.Petersburg is an important economic,tourist and scientific center of the country,a large transport hub.Pulkovo International airport is located 20 km from the center of St.Petersburg in Moskovskiy district .There are five train stations in St. Petersburg:Baltic station,Vitebsky station, Ladoga station,Moscow station,Finland station.In 1955, St.Petersburg metro was opened.St.Petersburg is the most important center between Scandinavia and Europe,central parts of Russia and the Baltic countries.Highways connect the city with Moscow and the Finnish border,with the Estonian border,with Murmansk,with Pskov and the Byelorussian border.St.Petersburg climate is moderate,transitional from temperate continental to temperate sea.The average temperature in February is minus 5.8 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 18.8 degrees Celsius.Most days of the year are cloudy and gloomy.High latitude of St.Petersburg’s location explains the phenomenon of white nights.During the period close to solstice,the sun is only 7 degrees below horizon,that’s why the sunset nearly coincides with the dawn and twilight continues all night long. White nights in St.Petersburg take place from June 11 till July 2.The population of St.Petersburg is about 5,360,000,the area-1,439 sq. km.
Saint Petersburg History
City Day is celebrated on May 27, the foundation day of St. Petersburg. The evolution of the city name:St.Petersburg (1703-1914),Petrograd (1914-1924), Leningrad (1924-1991),St.Petersburg (since September 6,1991).St.Petersburg was founded by the first Russian Emperor Peter I in 1703. This was the date of founding the Peter and Paul fortress.The main idea was to establish the water routes from the Russian Empire to Western Europe and the rest of the world, because, at that time, the country didn’t have access to the world’s oceans. Opposite the Peter and Paul fortress,the first commercial port of St.Petersburg was founded.From 1712 till 1918,St.Petersburg was the capital of the Russian Empire and the residence of the Russian emperors.In 1715,a Naval Academy was founded here, in 1719, “Kunstkamera”-the first public museum in Russia. In 1724,St.Petersburg Academy of Sciences was founded,in 1756-a theater. In 1837,the first Russian railroad was opened (from Saint Petersburg to Tsarskoye Selo, the residence of the imperial family), in 1851 – from Saint Petersburg to Moscow.According to the results of the 1897 census, the city’s population was 1,265 , 000 people. Before the World War I,the population exceeded 2 million (3rd place in Europe after London and Paris).The World War I greatly influenced the fate of St.Petersburg.In August 1914, on a wave of anti-German sentiment, the city was renamed Petrograd.In the early 20th century, the city was the site of three revolutions:in 1905-1907,in February 1917,and in October 1917.After the revolutionary events of 1917-1919,the city’s population reduced significantly,only 722,000 people in 1920.The city became the center of the newly formed Leningrad oblast on August 1,1927.In December 1931, it was retrieved from the region and became the city of republican importance. During the Second World War, Leningrad survived 872 days siege by German and Finnish troops.On September 6, 1991, the city regained its original name-Saint Petersburg.
St.Petersburg places of interest and other cultural institutions
St.Petersburg is the cultural center of global significance.The city has more than 8,000 objects of cultural heritage (monuments of history and culture), including more than 4,000 objects of cultural heritage of federal importance (almost 10%of all the monuments protected by the state on the territory of Russia).The historic center of Saint Petersburg and related to it complexes of monuments are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.Hermitage, Kunstkamera,Mariinsky Theater,National Library of Russia,Russian Museum, Peter and Paul Fortress,St.Isaac’s Cathedral,Nevsky Prospekt are among the most important cultural and tourist sites.St.Petersburg fountains are among the other sights of the city.The most famous among them is a complex of fountains in Peterhof .The following architectural masterpieces of the 18th-19th centuries are worth seeing:Peter and Paul Fortress,Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Smolny Convent,Palace Square with Winter Palace,Admiralty,Nevsky Prospect,Vasilyevski Island Spit with the building of the Stock Exchange ,Senate Square with Peter I statue (opened in 1782),Architect Rossi Street and Ostrovsky Square,Arts Square,St.Isaak’s Square .
Saint Petersburg Museums
St.Petersburg has over 200 museums,including:Hermitage (about three million works of art and monuments of world culture),Russian Museum (the largest museum of Russian art),Central Naval Museum, Museum of the Academy of Arts of Russia,City Sculpture Museum, Museum of History of St.Petersburg,Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera),Palace and park museums-reserves of Peterhof, Tsarskoye Selo,Pavlovsk.Art Center “Pushkinskaya,Museum of Contemporary Art,All-Russian Pushkin Museum, Blockade of Leningrad Museum.
Saint Petersburg Theaters
There are more than 70 theaters, including:Mariinskii Opera House, Alexandrinsky Theater, Mikhailovsky Theater,Bolshoi Drama Theater named after Tovstonogov,St.Petersburg Comedy Theater ,Maly Drama Theater,St.Petersburg Academic Theater of Lensovet,“Baltic House ”,Drama Theater named after Komissarjevskaya,Clown Theater “Licedei”,St. Petersburg Circus.
Novosibirsk is a city in Russia,the capital of the Novosibirsk region and Siberian Federal District .Novosibirsk is located in the south-eastern part of the West Siberian Plain,near the reservoir formed by the dam of the Novosibirsk hydroelectric power station.It is one of the largest Russian business, cultural, industrial,scientific,trade,and transport centers.It is a major transport hub connecting Siberia,the Far East,Central Asia with the European part of Russia. The city is served by the international airport “Tolmachevo” located 17 km from the center of Novosibirsk.The Trans-Siberian Railway passes through the city. Novosibirsk is also an important port on the Ob River.The city has a continental climate.The average temperature in January is minus 16.5 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 19.4 degrees Celsius.The population of Novosibirsk is about 1,650, 000,the area-505 sq. km.
Novosibirsk was founded in 1893.It was a settlement on a place where the bridge over the Ob River was planned to be built during construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway. The settlement was named Novonikolayevsk after the Russian Empire Tsar Nicholas II and St.Nicholas. In 1897, the bridge was completed that made Novonikolayevsk the most important transport hub of the region.Later, in the beginning of the 20th century, it became even more important with the construction of the Turkestan-Siberian Railway connecting Siberia with Central Asia and the Caspian Sea region.In 1897, Novonikolayevsk population was about 7,800.In 1903,the settlement became a town.By 1917, the population reached 80,000 people.Novonikolayevsk was the largest industrial center of Siberia.Soviet power was established in December 1917. Later, in May 1918,the city was captured by the White Army together with Czechoslovak war prisoners.Soviet power was established again in 1919,when the Red Army entered the city. During the Russian Civil War,the bridge over the Ob River was destroyed and the population began to decline.In 1926, the city received its current name-Novosibirsk (meaning “a new city in Siberia”). Novosibirsk again became a large industrial center of Siberia during Stalin’s industrialization.The city received several new large facilities of heavy industry, food processing and power generation. It was the reason why Novosibirsk earned the nickname “Siberian Chicago”.In 1954, the population of Novosibirsk was about 290,000.It became the largest city in Siberia.In the same year, Kommunalny Bridge was constructed replacing the original bridge over the Ob River.In 1957,a special town for scientific research was founded about 30 km away from Novosibirsk.The town received the name Akademgorodok (“the town of academicians”). It became home to the Siberian branch of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. Also fourteen other universities and various research institutions moved to Akademgorodok.The population of Novosibirsk reached one million in 1962, making it the youngest city in the world with such a large population.The first metro system in Siberia was built in the city in 1985.
Novosibirsk places of interest and other cultural institutions
The main attractions of Novosibirsk are:Novosibirsk railway station, Alexander Nevsky Cathedral,Krasny (Red) Avenue,Stokvartirny house, Novosibirsk metro bridge across the Ob River,Novosibirsk reservoir (“the Ob Sea”),Novosibirsk Zoo,Central Siberian Botanical Garden, Children’s railway,Monument Alexander III in the park “Gorodskoye nachalo”,Akademgorodok,Lenin monument on Lenin Square.
Novosibirsk State Art Museum ,Novosibirsk State History Museum, Novosibirsk Museum of Railway Equipment,N.Roerich Museum, Historical and Architectural Open-Air Museum.
State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater,State Drama Theater(“Old House”),Academic Youth Theater “Globus”,State Academic Drama Theater,City Drama Theater “Na levom beregu” (“On the left bank”), Musical Comedy Theater, Regional Puppet Theater,State Philharmonic.
Ekaterinburg (Yekaterinburg) Flag
Ekaterinburg (Yekaterinburg) City
Ekaterinburg or Yekaterinburg,from 1924 till 1991-Sverdlovsk, isthe capital of the Sverdlovsk region.It is the official center of the Ural Federal DistrictIt is an important transport and logistic hub on the Trans -Siberian Railway,a large industrial center,located in the central part of Eurasia, 1,667 km from Moscow. Right from its foundation, Ekaterinburg was a major industrial center.In the 18th century, the main industries were smelting and metal processing,since the beginning of the 19th century-machine-building, and,in the second half of the 19th century, light and food industries.A new round of development came in the period of industrialization.This time,giant heavy machinery plants were built.During the Second World War,about 60 enterprises were evacuated from Central Russia and Ukraine to Sverdlovsk.Today,Ekaterinburg is one of the largest financial and business centers in Russia.It is the third largest transportation hub of Russia-6 federal highways,7 railways meet here. Ekaterinburg is the main administrative,cultural,scientific and educational center of the Urals.The headquarters of Volga-Ural military district and the Presidium of the Urals branch of the Russian Academy of Science are located here. Besides, dozens of territorial bodies of federal power can be found in the city.The main air gate of Ekaterinburg is an international airport “Koltsovo”.It is one of the largest and most modern airports in Russia handling millions of passengers a year.The other city airport “Uktus” offers local flights and charter flights of business aviation. Ekaterinburg is located in a zone of moderate continental climate with harsh weather variability,well-defined seasons.The average temperature in January is-12,6 degrees Celsius,in July-+19 degrees C. The population of Ekaterinburg is about 1,470,000,the area-491 sq. km.
In spring 1723, by the emperor Peter’s I decree, construction of the largest in Russia iron producing plant began on the banks of the Iset River. Ekaterinburg was built as the capital of the mining region spread on a huge territory on both sides of the Urals, in Europe and Asia.Catherine II presented Ekaterinburg the status of a district town of Perm gubernia.The main road of the Russian Empire was constructed through a young town-Bolshoi (Big) Siberian Road.That’s why Ekaterinburg,together with other Permian towns,became a key-town to endless and rich Siberia, “a window overlooking Asia” like St.Petersburg was a Russian “window overlooking Europe”.From the end of the 19th and the early 20th century,Ekaterinburg was one of the centers of revolutionary movement in the Urals.Former Russian emperor Nicholas II and his family were shot in the city in July 1918,in Ipatyev’s House .Church-on-Blood was built on this place recently.From 1919,the city was the center of Ekaterinburg gubernia,from 1923 till 1934-the center of Ural oblast (province).On October,14,1924,it was decided to rename the city after Yakov Sverdlov,a prominent Communist Party leader.In Soviet times, Sverdlovsk,being originally a relatively small provincial town,turned into a large industrial center.In 1930s, intensive construction of machine-building and metallurgic plants began in the city.After the World War II, new industrial and agricultural plants were put in operation,construction of new houses began,heating and gas maintenance were changed greatly.In 1980 ,construction of the subway began.On September 4, 1991, the city received its original name again.
Ekaterinburg places of interest and other cultural institutions
The city and its outskirts have a lot of tourist attractions.There are over 600 monuments of history and culture in the city,43 of them are of federal importance.In general, the city retained a large number of architectural monuments:Square of 1905 year,The dam of the city pond on the Iset River and the adjacent Historic park with the Museum of Industry, Architecture and Nature of the Urals,the Fine Arts Museum,and the monument to the city founders Tatishchev and De Gennin,Church-on-Blood,The building of Ural State Conservatory,The manor of Rastorguev-Kharitonov,The manor of Zotov/Tarasov, Sevastyanov House,Literary Block near,Church of the Ascension.
The city has about 50 different museums:Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore,Museum of Fine Arts,Ural Geological Museum,United Museum of Writers of the Urals,Sverdlovsk Regional Fire-Technical Exhibition,Military History Museum.
State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater,Academic Musical Comedy Theater,Academic Drama Theater ,“Kolyada-Theater”,Theater for Young People,Puppet Theater,“Provincial dances” theater and others.
Nizhny Novgorod City
Nizhny Novgorod is a capital of Nizhegorodskaya oblast and the Volga Federal District.It is an important economic,transport, and cultural center. From 1932 to 1990,the city was called Gorky in honor of the famous writer Maxim Gorky. Nizhny Novgorod is located 417 km east of Moscow,in the center of the East European Plain,at the confluence of two major waterways of the European part of Russia-the Oka and Volga rivers.This location made the city an important shipping center of the country.The Oka divides the city into two parts. International Airport Strigino is located in the western part of Avtozavodsky district,18 km south-west of the center of Nizhny Novgorod.The climate is temperate continental with long cold winters and warm,relatively short summers.The average temperature in January is minus 8.9 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 19.4 degrees Celsius. The population of Nizhny Novgorod is about 1,280,000,the area-411 sq. km.
Nizhny Novgorod History
From the 9th century, Slavic colonization took place in the upper Volga River, the region inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples.By the end of the 11th century,the entire Upper Volga region,almost to the mouth of the Oka River,belonged to the ancient Rus’ state.In 1221,Russian Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich of Vladimir, founded a wooden fort at the confluence of the Volga and the Oka rivers.The settlement was named Nizhny Novgorod (“lower newtown”).In 1350,the town became the capital of an independent Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod principality, which occupied a vast territory and competed with the Moscow principality. During this period,Nizhny Novgorod region was actively populated.In 1392 (but finally only in 1425),Suzdal-Nizhny Novgorod principality was annexed to the Moscow principality.During Ivan III and Vasily III,the town played a role of an outpost.It was a gathering place for troops during wars against the Khanate of Kazan.In 1500-1511,to replace an existing wooden fort,a stone fortress (kremlin) was built.In 1612,during the Russian “Time of Troubles”,Kuzma Minin ,a local merchant, gathered troops to expel Polish forces from Moscow.The commander of the troops was Dmitry Pozharsky.The new royal dynasty,the Romanovs,became the head of the country.The square in front of the Kremlin was named after Minin and Pozharsky.The remains of Kuzma Minin are buried in the citadel.In 1817,Makarevskaya Fair moved to Nizhny Novgorod attracting millions of visitors annually.By the middle of the 19th century,the town was known as the trading capital of the Russian Empire.Sormovo Iron Works was the largest industrial enterprise of the town.In 1914,Moscow-Kazan Railway Company began construction of the first bridge over the Volga River.The bridge was finished only in the Soviet era, in 1927.During the industrialization of the 1930s, several large engineering plants were built in the city,including one the largest Soviet automaker-Gorky Automobile Plant.During the Second World War,Nizhny Novgorod was the largest supplier of military equipment.Nizhny Novgorod was closed to foreigners for a long time because of numerous military facilities located in the city.The “closed” status of Gorky came to an end in 1990,when the original name Nizhny Novgorod was returned to the city.
Places of interest and other cultural institutions
There are more than 600 unique historic,architectural,and cultural monuments in Nizhny Novgorod.Bolshaya Pokrovskaya street, Narodnogo Edinstva Square,Rozhdestvenskaya Street,Church of the Nativity,Nizhny Novgorod kremlin,The Cathedral of Archangel Michael, Chkalov monument Minin &Pozharsky Square St.George’s tower of the kremlin.
Nizhny Novgorod Museums
There are a lot of different museums on the territory of Nizhny Novgorod.The most popular museums are:Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin , Nizhny Novgorod State Art Museum located on the territory of the kremlin,A.Gorky Museum,A.Sakharov Museum,Russian Museum of Photography,Open air museum “Russian Steam Locomotives”,Museum of Wooden Architecture.
Nizhny Novgorod Theaters
State Drama Theater named after Gorky.One of the oldest Russian theaters, State Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet named after Pushkin,Nizhny Novgorod Puppet Theater,“Comedy” theater,State Youth Theater.
Kazan,a large river port on the Volga River, is the capital of Tatarstan Republic, located about 820 km east of Moscow.It is one of the most important economic,scientific and cultural centers of the country .From the Tatar people language the word “qazan” means a “boiler”or“cauldron”.The International airport Kazan is located about 26 km to the south-east of the city.The railway station is located in the central part of Kazan.The main building of the station was constructed in 1896.Kazan metro was opened in 2005.Kazan climate is temperate continental,extreme cold and scorching heat are rare and not typical for the city.The average temperature in January is minus 10.4 degrees Celsius, in July- plus 20.2 degrees C.National composition of the population of Kazan: 48.6%-Russians, 47.6%-Tatars,0.8%-Chuvash,0.4%-Ukrainians,0.3%-Mari. The population of Kazan is about 1,250,600, the area- 425 sq. km.
Kazan was founded as an outpost on the northern borders of Volzhkaya Bulgaria.According to the official version,Kazan was founded no less than 1000 years ago.The evidence is a Czech coin found on the territory of Kazan Kremlin and dated approximately 929-930s,as well as other items with less clear dates. In the 13th-14th centuries,Kazan rapidly developed and became an important trade and political center of the Golden Horde.The favorable geographical location on the trade ways connecting East and West was the reason for the growth of Kazan.In 1438, Kazan was declared the capital of the Kazan Khanate.There were several conflicts with the Moscow state and as a result the town was conquered by the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible in 1552.After the rebellion was finally suppressed ,Kazan began its new history as part of the Russian state .In 1556,the construction of the new,white stoned Kremlin began.About 7,000 Russians were brought into the almost empty town. In the 17th century, Kazan grew economically and new manufacturing factories came into being.In 1708, it became the capital of large Kazan gubernia (province).From 1760s,the first wooden roads were built as well as bridges across the Bulak and the Kazanka rivers.By the end of the 18th century,about 22, 000 people lived in Kazan, together with suburbs-over 40,000, and only about 10% of them were Tatars. The city became an educational and cultural center of the Volga region:in 1758 the first provincial gymnasium was opened in Kazan,in 1771-the first madrasah ,in 1791-a theater.In 1804,the Kazan University was established-the third in Russia-and the city became a large scientific center.In the 20th century it experienced a lot of events.Kazan became one of the centers of revolutionary movement.In 1918, during the Civil War, heavy battles were held for Kazan.In 1920,the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was formed. In 1930s, intensive industrialization of Kazan began.At the same time,the population rapidly grew.During the World War II, a lot of plants were evacuated to Kazan as well as some branches of the USSR Academy of Science. In 1990s, the city became one of the financial and political centers of Russia.
Kazan places of interest and other cultural institutions
Today,the most valuable areas in terms of historic buildings are Bauman Street,Kremlin Street, Mushtari Street,Karl Marx Street,Maxim Gorky Street, Gabdulla Tukai Street,Bulak channel area, Svobody Square,Old-Tatar sloboda.Peter and Paul Cathedral,Kazan Virgin Monastery,unique historical and architectural complexes of Raif monastery and island-town Sviyazhsk located near Kazan. Kazan has a lot of parks.The most ones are the amusement park “Kyrlay”,Millennium Park,Victory Park, Uritsky Park,Central Park,as well as Russia’s oldest and one of the the oldest in Europe,Kazan zoological and botanic garden.
Kazan has a lot of museums,including 34 state museums:National Museum of Tatarstan Republic, Kazan Kremlin,State Hermitage,Museum of Fine Arts of the Republic of Tatarstan,Museum of Kazan Millennium.
Tatar Academic State Opera and Ballet Theater,Tatar Academic Theater named after Galiaskar Kamal, Kazan State Academic Russian Bolshoi Drama Theater named after V.I. Kachalov,State Concert Hall.
Chelyabinsk is a capital of the Chelyabinsk region,located in the center of Eurasia,on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains on the Miass River,200 km south of Ekaterinburg and 1,879 km east of Moscow.Chelyabinsk is a business, cultural and sports center of the Southern Urals.The international airport “Chelyabinsk” is located in the northeastern part of the city,about 18 km from the center.The climate in the city is moderately continental.The average temperature in January is minus 16.4 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 18.1 degrees C.Chelyabinsk historically developed as the center of the mixing of many cultures:first of all the cultures of indigenous people of the region-Bashkir,Tatar and Russian.Today,the city has a number of Orthodox churches and mosques,a Catholic church,several Protestant churches,a synagogue.The population of Chelyabinsk is about 1,205,000,the area-530 sq. km.
Chelyabinsk fortress was founded on the site of the Bashkir village Chelyaba in 1736.The official town status was obtained in 1787.In 1780s,Chelyabinsk was a quiet district town,but sometimes it was the place of events of global importance.For example,in 1788,a group of doctors headed by S.S. Andrievskiy studied symptoms and gave the name of anthrax,and invented a serum against this deadly disease.By the mid-19th century,the town was one of the main trade fairs in the Urals.Until the late 19th century,Chelyabinsk was a relatively small town.The second birth happened in 1892, thanks to the Emperor Alexander III.It was related to the completion of construction of the Samara-Zlatoust railway that connected Chelyabinsk with the European part of the Russian Empire.The emperor canceled the project to build the railway Kazan-Yekaterinburg-Tyumen that didn’t include Chelyabinsk.Since 1892, the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway continued further to the east of the country.Further development of the town was also supported by the construction of the railway to Yekaterinburg (opened in 1896).Within a few years,Chelyabinsk took a leading position in grain, oil, meat and tea trade.The town received an unofficial title of “the Gateway to Siberia.The city’s population increased significantly(in 1897-approx.20 thousand people,in 1910-more than 60 thousand,in 1917-approx.70 thousand).During the rapid growth at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries, similar to American cities,Chelyabinsk was sometimes called the Trans-Ural Chicago.During the first Soviet five-year plans, Chelyabinsk became one of the country’s largest industrial centers, the city experienced fast growth.Such industrial giants as Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant and Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant were built.During World War II (at the end of 1941),it was decided to evacuate a lot of Soviet factories and plants from the western parts of the country to remote places that were out of the way of advancing German armies.As a result,a lot of new industries and thousands of workers appeared in Chelyabinsk.Because of several large facilities for the manufacture of T-34 tanks and Katyusha rocket launchers,the city became known all over the Soviet Union as “Tankograd” (the City of Tanks).By the 1980 s,the capital of Southern Urals became a major research center of the USSR with 7 universities and 40 research institutes.Chelyabinsk city and region were closed to foreigners until 1992.Today,Chelyabinsk is one of the most important industrial centers of Russia.The main local industry is heavy industry,especially metallurgy and military machinery like Chelyabinsk Electrode Plant,Chelyabinsk Metallurgical Plant,Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant and Chelyabinsk Tube Rolling Plant.
Places of interest and other cultural institutions
On the territory of Chelyabinsk,there are about 250 objects included in the list of cultural heritage of Russia.117 belong to the pre-revolutionary period and 100-to the Soviet period.Victory Park,Kirovka street,Komsomolskaya Square.
State History Museum that has a planetarium,Museum of Decorative Arts of the Urals,Region Picture Gallery,Museum of the History of Urban Life,Forest Museum,Museum of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant ,Skating Museum,Museum of Railway Equipment of the South Urals Railway,Museum of Military Equipment in the Victory Garden,Museum of entertaining science “Eksperimentus”,Medical History Museum,Chelyabinsk Regional Geological Museum.
Drama Theater named after Naum Orlov,Opera and Ballet Theater named after Mikhail Glinka,Drama Chamber Theater,Puppet Theater,Youth Theater,Theater of the Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant,Studio Theater named after Z.Alexandrova,Theater “Mannequin”,New Art Theater,Contemporary Dance Theater.
Omsk is the capital of the Omsk region.It is a large transport hub located in Siberia,about 2,700 km east from Moscow.The city is located in the southern part of the West Siberian Plain,in the center of the southern part of the Omsk region,on the banks of the Irtysh River at the confluence with the Om River.The rivers connect the city with a number of coal and other mineral mining cities and towns of Kazakhstan and with oil,natural gas and lumber rich regions of Siberia.Omsk airport “Tsentralny ”, located 5 km southwest of the city center.The climate is continental with frosty winters and hot summers.The average temperature in January is minus 16.3 degrees Celsius in July-plus 19.6 degrees Celsius.The majority of people living in Omsk are Russians-89% ,5%-Kazakhs,Tatars.The population of Omsk is about 1,180,000,the area-573 sq. km.
In 1716,a small wooden fort was constructed on the place of the present Omsk Its only purpose was to protect the eastern borders of the Russian Empire along the Irtysh and the Ishim rivers.At the end of the 18th century,a brick fortress was built on the right bank of the Om River. In 1890, with the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, the town began to grow quickly and received the official status of the capital of Western Siberia and Steppe (present Kazakhstan).In 1910,the Siberian Exposition of Agriculture and Industry was held in Omsk.After the exposition,Omsk received a nickname “Siberian Chicago”.After the establishment of Soviet power,Novosibirsk was chosen to be the capital of Western Siberia.Omsk lost a lot of its administrative,educational and other functions . During and after the Second World War,the growth of the city continued,when several large industries were evacuated to Omsk from the western parts of the Soviet Union.After the war,Omsk was one of the most important military centers of the Soviet Union.Also,in 1950,the city became an oil refining center with the development of the Siberian natural gas and oil fields.Omsk was a “closed city”,no foreigner could visit it without a special permission.The high concentration of military enterprises led to a significant rise in unemployment after the collapse of the Soviet Union and a substantial reduction of the Russian military budget.Today,Omsk is open to visitors,there are no any restrictions on visiting it.
Omsk places of interest and other cultural institutions
Omsk is a major historical and cultural center of Siberia.There are monuments of world importance: Omsk fortress,Omsk Cadet Corps,Cossack Nikolsky Cathedral,Assumption Cathedral,Palace of the Governor-General of the Steppe Region,Holy Cross Cathedral,The ensemble of buildings on Lyubinsky Avenue,The building of the City Duma and the City Council,Drama Theater, Khlebnikov House,The Fire Tower,The Building of the Omsk Railway,Musical Theater.
Omsk Regional Historical Museum,Omsk Museum of Fine Arts named after Vrubel,The Literary Museum named after Dostoyevsky,The Museum Complex of Military Glory,Municipal Museum “Art of Omsk”,The State Museum of the National Artist of Russia K.P.Belov,The Art Museum “Liberov-Center” ,Omsk Museum of Theater Arts.
Drama Theater ,Lyceum Drama Theater,State Musical Theater,State Puppet Theater “Arlekin”,Theater for Children and Youth,State Circus,Hall of Organ and Chamber Music,Region Philharmonic.
The official foundation date of Samara is 1586.This year, a small fortress called Samara was built at the confluence of the Volga and Samara rivers.The main purpose of the fortress was to control the vast territory of the middle reaches of the Volga River and the mouth of the Samara River,to conduct the systematic conquest of the land,protect Russia from the nomads and to ensure the waterway from Kazan to Astrakhan.In 1780,Samara became the capital of the Simbirsk region.In 1850,the population of the town was about 50 thousand people.By the end of the 19th century,the population reached 90 thousand people,and,by 1916,there were about 150 thousand people in Samara.In 1877, the Orenburg railway passed through Samara.The local pier was one of the best on the Volga River,thousands of ships with different cargoes arrived at it during the year.In 1915,an electric tram was put into operation.In 1935,the city was renamed after Valerian Kuybyshev,the Soviet state and party figure. During the Second World War,Kuybyshev was chosen to be the capital of the USSR,if Moscow would have been captured by the Germans.A special underground shelter was built for Stalin. During the war,the city’s population grew by half (from 400 to 600 thousand people).Kuibyshev aviation plants produced about 28 thousand of IL-2 and IL-10 ground attack aircrafts-more than 80% of the total number.After the war,Kuibyshev became the largest industrial and cultural center of the SovietUnion:aviation,aerospace,mechanical engineering,metallurgy,electrical, cable,oil refining,and light industries.The city became a “closed city” (foreigners could not visit it).All Soviet and Russian cosmonauts, including Yury Gagarin,were launched into space on a family of launch vehicles R-7, manufactured by Samara Space Rocket Center “Progress”. By 1979, the city’s population reached 1.2 million people.In 1986,Samara had its maximum population-1,267,000 people.The historical name was returned to the city in 1991.
Samara places of interest and other cultural institutions
There are a lot of various historical buildings in Samara which make the city precious from the architectural point of view.Samara Embankment,Kuibyshev Square is the largest square in Europe. The Building of Samara railway station, is the highest railway station in Europe Architectural ensembles of Kuibyshev and Leningrad streets, Glory Monument, the monuments “Lad’ya”, “Chapaev” , “The cat on a radiator”, “Comrade Sukhov”, “Pinocchio”.
Samara Regional Museum of History and Local Lore named after Pyotr Alabin, Samara Regional Art Museum,“Stalin’s Bunker” Museum,Space Museum named after Dmitry Kozlov,Aviation and Space Exploration University Museum,Volga Region Museum of Railway Machinery,Military History Museum of the Volga-Ural Military District,Gorky Literature and Memorial Museum,Frunze House-Museum, The Memorial Museum of V.I.Lenin,Municipal museum “Children’s Art Gallery”,Modernist Style Museum-Kurlina House Museum,The Museum-Estate of A.N. Tolstoy,Zoological Museum named after D.N.Florov
Academic Drama Theater named after Gorky,Academic Opera and Ballet Theater,Youth Theater “SamArt”,Municipal theater “Samarskaya square”,Social Experimental Theater “Wings”, Samara State Philharmonic,Samara State Circus named after Oleg Popov,Samara Zoo.
Rostov-on-Don or Rostov-na-Donu is the largest city in the south of Russia,the capital of the Rostov region and the Southern Federal District.It is a major administrative,cultural, scientific, educational,and industrial center and a major transport hub of southern Russia.Rostov-on-Don stands on the banks of the Don River,about 46 km east of the Azov Sea and 1,070 km south of Moscow.It is a major transport hub of the southern part of European Russia:several highways of federal and regional importance,the railway “St.Petersburg-Rostov-on-Don-Caucasus”, a navigable waterway from the center of Russia to the Black Sea.Also,there is an international airport in the city.Rostov-on-Don is a large educational and scientific center of Russia.Southern Federal University is one of the largest universities in the country (about 56 thousand students).The climate is temperate continental. The average temperature in January is minus 3 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 23.4 degrees Celsius.The population of Rostov-on-Don is about 1,150,000,the area, 436 sq. km.
The region near the mouth of the Don River played an important commercial and cultural role since ancient times.Such settlements as Tanais (a Greek colony),Tana (a Genoese fort),Azak (a Turkish fortress) were situated in the region.The official date of foundation of Rostov-on-Don is considered to be December 15, 1749, when the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna signed a decree establishing Temernitskaya customs. The Don River connected the northern and southern regions of the Russian Empire.Temernitskiy port became the only Russian port in the south of the country providing trade with the countries of the Black,Aegean,and Mediterranean seas.In 1760-1761,for the protection of the lower reaches of the Don from the raids of the Turks and Crimean Tatars, construction of a fortress began.The garrison of the fortress consisted of more than four thousand people.The fortress was given the name of Metropolitan of Rostov and Yaroslavl Demetrius (1652-1709).Subsequently ,the name was transformed:the fortress of Dimitri Rostov,Rostovskaya fortress,simply Rostov,and finally,to distinguish from the ancient town of Rostov the Great located near Yaroslavl,Rostov-on-Don .The fortress played a significant role during the Russian-Turkish wars of the second half of the 18th century.By the end of the 18th century,the fortress lost its strategic importance.The population of Rostov-on-Don was 119,476 people in 1897.In 1918-1920,during the Civil War, Rostov-on-Don played an important role as one of the centers of the White (anti-Bolshevik) movement. It was captured several times by the White Army and Red Army.In 1926,“Rostselmash”, the giant of the Soviet agricultural machinery,was founded. Rostov-on-Don became the capital of the region in 1928.The previous capital of the region was Novocherkassk (the capital of the Cossacks).November 29,1935, the largest in the country drama theater named after Gorky was opened.The auditorium of the theater has 2,200 seats,the building is known for its unique architecture (the form of a tractor).The citywas heavily damaged during the Second World War.The German army captured Rostov-on-Don twice (in 1941 and 1942).February 14, 1943,after the victory at Stalingrad,during the general retreat of the German army on the Eastern Front , Rostov-on-Don was liberated by the Soviet army. Today, the city is a major center of business activity.
Rostov-on-Don places of interest and other cultural institutions
There are about 1,000 objects of cultural heritage in the city, including 482 architectural monuments (16 monuments of history and culture of federal importance),70 archaeological monuments,8 large memorial complexes, 106 monuments, and about 400 memorial plaques.The historic center of Rostov -on -Don is especially rich in architectural monuments.Bolshaya Sadovaya Street,is one of the oldest and most beautiful streets of Rostov-on-Don.The building of the City Duma is worth mentioning. The building of the Rostov Academic Drama Theater named after Gorky. Rostov Zoo, founded in 1927, is located in the heart of the city. The zoo has the most complete collection of apes in Russia. The botanical garden of Southern Federal University.
Rostov Regional Museum of Local History has the following permanent exhibitions:“Archaeology from the Stone Age till the Iron Age”,“The History of the Don Cossacks”,“The peoples of the Don”,“The Museum of the Southern Provincial Town”,“The provincial towns of the South of Russia:Taganrog, Azov,Shakhty,Novocherkassk, Krasny Sulin”,“The evolution of the Don nature.”In the “Golden room” of the museum you can see a rich collection of golden decorations made by ancient nomadic peoples, Regional Museum of Fine Arts i,Museum of Modern Art,Center for Contemporary Art “Tobacco Factory” ,Museum of Railway Equipment,Museum of Russian-Armenian Friendship,Museum of the History of Brewing in Southern Russia ,Rostov Museum of Cosmonautics.
Academic Drama Theater named after Gorky,State Puppet Theater,Academic Youth Theater,State Musical Theater, Rostov Regional Philharmonic,Circus.
Ufa is the capital of Bashkortostan Republic.It is one of the largest economic,cultural,sports,religious ,and scientific centers of the country,an important transport hub,located about 1,340 km southeast of Moscow.The climate is temperate continental.Summers are warm,winters are moderately cold and long.The average temperature in February is minus 14.7 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 20.2 degrees Celsius.National composition of Ufa:Russians-48,9%,Tatars-28.3%,Bashkirs-17.1%,Ukrainians-1.2% ,others-4.5%.Ufa is a large transport hub of Russia.The Trans-Siberian Railway runs through the city. Ufa has a International Airport.The population of Ufa is about 1,130,000, the area-708 sq. km.
In 1557,the area inhabited by the Bashkirs became part of Grand Principality of Moscow.In 1574,on the orders of the Russian Tsar Ivan IV,a fortress was founded on the site of present Ufa.In 1586,the settlement became a town.The original name of the settlement was Tura-Tau,after the name of the hill it was standing on.The present name “Ufa” means “small” in the Turkish language; this name was used by local people.Later,it became the official name of the town.In the middle of the 17th century,the town got its emblem with an image of a running marten.In the 17th-18th centuries,Ufa gradually turned into an administrative and economic center of the region.In the 18th century,the town also became a large trading and cultural center of the Russian Empire.In the middle of the 19th century, there were more than a dozen tanneries and other factories in Ufa.The town received further impetus to its development due to the following events. In 1870, the regular navigation was opened on the Belaya River.In 1888-1892,the Samara-Zlatoust (Kuibyshev) Railway was constructed. Rail and ship-repair workshops, sawmills,steam mills appeared in Ufa.By the end of the 19th century,there were about 30 factories in the town.In 1922, Ufa became the capital of Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.In the 1920s-1930s,the city experienced rapid development, industrial production increased by several times.During the Second World War, dozens of industrial enterprises from the western regions of the USSR were evacuated to Ufa. After the discovery of oil in Bashkiria,this city became a large center of oil production and refining.
Places of interest in Ufa
Bashkir State Art Museum,House-Museum of Vladimir Lenin,Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography ,Museum of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Bashkortostan,Museum of Contemporary Art of the Republic of Bashkortostan named after Nail Lutfullin,National Literary, Museum of the Republic of Bashkortostan,National Museum of the Republic of Bashkortostan, National Museum of Military Glory,Ufa Art Gallery,Gallery X-max,Gallery “Miras”,Center for Contemporary Art “Clouds”,Small Exhibition Hall of the Union of Artists of the Republic of Bashkortostan,“Ural” Gallery .
State Opera and Ballet Theater,Bashkir Academic Drama Theater named after Mazhit Gafuri,Russian Academic Drama Theater of Bashkortostan ,National Youth Theater named after Mustai Karim,Ufa State Tatar Theater “Nur”,Bashkir State Puppet Theater,Alternative Theater “Perspective”,State Philharmonic Society named after Husain Akhmetov,Planetarium.
Krasnoyarsk is a capital of Krasnoyarsk krai (the second largest region in Russia).It is the largest of the ancient cities of Siberia and the largest cultural, economic, industrial,and educational center of Central and Eastern Siberia.From west to east the city length is about 41 km,from north to south-about 37 km.Krasnoyarsk is divided into two parts by the Yenisei River;its left-bank part is located in Western Siberia,the right bank part-in Eastern Siberia.Krasnoyarsk stands on both banks of the Yenisei River, in a hollow formed by the northern spurs of Eastern Sayan.It is the place,where West Siberian Plain,Middle Siberian Plateau,and Altay-Sayany Mountains come together.Krasnoyarsk is a large scientific,educational and sports center of Russia.The Siberian Federal University has more than forty thousand students. In general,more than 150 000 students live and study here. The main industries are aerospace industry, ferrous metallurgy, machine building, wood processing, chemical, transportation,food,retail and wholesale services.Krasnoyarsk is a large transport hub standing at the crossroads of the Trans-Siberian Railway and the Yenisei River waterways.Krasnoyarsk underground is being constructed.Underground lines are deep:60 m and even deeper.There are five bridges across the Yenisei River.Krasnoyarsk has two airports:Yemelyanovo International Airport,the largest airport in Eastern Siberia, and Cheremshanka Airport. The climate is sharply continental. The average temperature in January is minus 15.5 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 19.1 degrees Celsius.The population of Krasnoyarsk is about 1,095,000,the area-386 sq. km.
Krasnoyarsk was founded by the Cossacks headed by A.Dubensky in 1628 as a military settlement in the place of the confluence of the Kacha and Yenisei rivers.Originally the settlement was called “Krasny Yar”.Krasnoyarsk became a town in 1690,when Siberia was finally annexed to Russia.In 1708,the town population was about 800 people.In 1713,the population reached 2500 people.It began to grow rapidly after the Siberian Road was constructed in 1735.The road connected Krasnoyarsk with Achinsk and the rest of European Russia.In 1773,after a major fire,only thirty houses remained in Krasnoyarsk.The new linear layout of the town of St.Petersburg type was developed.This was the beginning of present Krasnoyarsk.In 1834,the town garden was founded. Today, it is the central park of the city.Further development of Krasnoyarsk was due to gold-fields found in the region, and the railway constructed in 1895.In Soviet times, Krasnoyarsk was one of the largest cities in Siberia and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.In 1934,Krasnoyarsk became the administrative center of the Krasnoyarsk Krai.The first in the RSFSR children’s railway was opened in the Park of Culture and Rest named after Gorky in 1936.During World War II,a lot of plants were evacuated from European Russia to Krasnoyarsk.
Krasnoyarsk places of interest and other cultural institutions
The main attractions of Krasnoyarsk: State Nature Reserve “Stolby”, Paraskeva Pyatnitsa Chapel, Krasnoyarsk Bridge, Hydroelectric power station,Communal Bridge over the Yenisei River,Krasnoyarsk Central Stadium.
Museum of Local Lore, opened in 1889, is one of the largest natural history museums in Russia, State Art Museum named after V.I.Surikov,Estate-Museum of V.I.Surikov,Museum Center,City Exhibition Hall ,Art Gallery “Modern Art of Krasnoyariye” ,Victory Memorial,Historical Museum, Steamboat Museum, Literary Museum,Museum of History and Development of Navigation in the Yenisei basin,History Museum of the Krasnoyarsk Railway, Necropolis-culture and history museum.
Opera and Ballet Theater,Drama Theater named after A.S. Pushkin,Music Theater,State Theater of Young Spectator, Puppet Theater, Philharmonic, Organ hall of the Krasnoyarsk Philharmonic, Mime Theater “Chasing Two Hares”, Theater “Behind the White Wall”,Circus.
Perm is a city in the east of the European part of Russia located near the Ural mountains,the capital of Perm Krai.According to the Russian linguist and academician D.V.Bubrih’s version, the word “perm” derives from a Vepsian word “perama” meaning “far-away land”.Permian geological period (often simply “Perm”) is named in honor of the Perm province.In 1841,the British geologist Roderick Murchison allocated this geological period when he was on an expedition in the Kungur district of the Perm province.It is a port on the Kama River,a large industrial,scientific,cultural,and logistic center of the Urals. This city is the main economic center of the region and one of the largest economic centers of Russia.The local economy is based on heavy industry.The leading industries are:electric power,oil and gas processing,mechanical engineering,chemical and petrochemical,wood processing,polygraphic ,and food industries.Perm city is a large transport hub.It has a favorable geographical position-in the center of Russia at the crossroads between Europe and Asia (the Trans-Siberian Railway),and the International Airport Bolshoye Savino. Perm climate is temperate continental.The average temperature in January is minus 12.8 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 18.6 degrees Celsius.The population of Perm is about 1,070,000, the area-800 sq. km.
The territory of the present city was inhabited since ancient times. There are more than 130 archaeological sites in Perm (from Stone Age to the late Middle Ages).In the 17th century, these lands belonged to the Stroganov merchants. The date of Perm foundation is considered the day when construction of Yegoshinsky copper melting plant began-May 4,1723.In 1780,Catherine II issued a decree about the foundation of the town of Perm on the basis of the plant.In 1780-1781,the buildings for official institutions were being constructed ,construction of Kazansky and Sibirsky roads began.On August 24, 1878,the Ural Railway from Perm to Chusovaya was opened.The end of the 19th century was a period of intensive railway construction.At the end of the 19th century, institutions of arts and culture were intensely developed in Perm.In 1874,construction of an opera and ballet theater began .In 1886,the first movie theater “Illusion” was opened.In the early 20th century,the city’s population reached 100,000 people.According to the census of 1926,the population of Perm was 84,804.By 1939,it grew over three times and was 306,000.In 1940-1957,the city was called Molotov after V. M.Molotov,the chairman of the USSR government in 1930-1941. A lot of people and several plants were evacuated to Permskaya oblast during the World War II.In 1955, construction of Kama power station was completed. In 1958, the first part of Permsky oil processing plant began operating. In 1967,Communal Bridge was built connecting the center of Perm with the right bank of the Kama River.By May 20, 1979, Perm had a population of one million people, in just 50 years the city’s population increased by more than 10 times (in some years, the population increase was 15% and was the highest among all the cities of the Urals).
Perm places of interest and other cultural institutions
Meshkov House,Gribushin House,Theological College,Bishops House,Mariinsky women’s gymnasium ,Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral,The manor of the merchant A.G. Gavrilov,Church of the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God,Cyril and Methodius School,Governor’s House,Rotunda in the city park,St. Peter and Paul Cathedral,All Saints Church.
Art Gallery,Perm Regional Museum,Museum of Artillery,The House-Museum of the Inventor of Electric Welding N.G. Slavyanov,The Memorial House-Museum “Underground press”,The Museum-Diorama on Vyshka Mount, Puppet Theater Museum,The Museum “The House of Diaghilev”,Museum of the History of Communication,The Museum of the Kama Hydroelectric Station,Aviation Museum.
Academic Opera and Ballet Theater named after P.I.Tchaikovsky, Academic Theater “Theater”,Youth Theater,Puppet Theater,Theatre “U Mosta” (“At the Bridge”),Philharmonic Society,Planetarium,Perm Circus,Perm Zoo.
Voronezh is a city in the European part Russia,the capital of the Voronezh region,situated on the banks of the Voronezh water reservoir (the Voronezh River),about 520 km south of Moscow.It is a cultural,industrial and scientific center of the region.Voronezh is also an important railway hub of the region.Voronezh International Airport (Chertovitskoye).The city is located in the temperate climate zone. The average temperature in February is minus 7.4 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 21.8 degrees Celsius.The population of Voronezh is about 1,050,000,the area- 596 sq. km.
In 1585,a wooden fort was founded on the banks of the Voronezh River by order of the Russian Tsar Fyodor I Ivanovich (Ivan the Terrible’s son).The main purpose of the new settlement was to protect the southern border of the country from the raids of Crimean Tatars and other nomads.Construction of the fort was completed in 1586.Therefore,1586 is considered the founding date of Voronezh.The fort was located on a high and steep right bank of the Voronezh River.In 1590,it was burned down during one of the raids.In1594,Voronezh was rebuilt on almost the same place.In the winter of 1696,after the failure of the first attempt of capture the town of Azov,Peter I decided to create a Russian Navy and chose Voronezh as the place of its construction.In 1696-1722,Peter I visited Voronezh more than a dozen times and spent a total of about 500 days in the town. During the stay of Peter I, Voronezh actually turned into an administrative center of Russia.The population of the town increased from 10 to 50 thousand people.Voronezh became the capital of the Azov province in 1715. Later,in 1725, the Azov province was renamed into the Voronezh guberniya. In1748,Voronezh was badly damaged by fire. After it,the center of the town moved to the place of the present University Square.In1781,the town received its coat of arms.In the 19th century, Voronezh was the center of the Central Black Earth region.The main local products were bread,butter, cattle, leather,soap and others.It was connected with Rostov-on-Don by railway in 1868,with Moscow-in 1871.In 1913,Voronezh Agricultural Institute,the first higher education institution in the city,was opened.Today,it is known as Voronezh State Agricultural University named after Emperor Peter I.In the early 20th century,the city’s population was about 61 thousand people.In 1928, Voronezh became the center of the Central Black Earth region.In 1934, it became the center of the Voronezh region. A lot of famous people lived and worked in Voronezh:the inventor of the laser and Nobel prize winner,physicist N.Basov;such Russian poets and writers as Bunin, Koltsov, Nikitin, Platonov, Marshak,Troepolsky.In 1934, Voronezh became the place of exile of the famous Russian poet Osip Mandelstam.The city was the site of fierce fighting during the Second World War.From July 7,1942 till January 25, 1943, Voronezh was partly under German occupation,more than 90% of all residential buildings were destroyed.By 1950, the restoration of Voronezh was completed,many buildings and architectural monuments were restored.In 1968 ,the Voronezh aircraft factory produced the first Soviet supersonic passenger aircraft Tu-144.In 1977,the factory produced the first Soviet airbus IL-86. In 1972, the Voronezh Reservoir was created.It became the largest water reservoir in the Black Earth region (about 70 square kilometers).
Voronezh places of interest
Regional Museum of Local Lore,Regional Literary Museum named after I.S. Nikitin,Art Museum named after I.N.Kramskoy,Exhibition Hall of The Russian Union of Artists,Center of Military-Patriotic Education “Museum-Diorama”, Museums of Voronezh State University,Museum Ship “Goto Predestinatsia”, Natural Architecture and Archaeological Museum-Reserve “Divnogorie” (80 km south of Voronezh).
Academic Drama Theater named after A.V. Koltsov,State Opera and Ballet Theater,State Theater of Young Spectator,Chamber Theater,Puppet Theater “Shut”,Voronezh Oceanarium,Voronezh Planetarium
Volgograd (in 1589-1925-Tsaritsyn),(in 1925-1961-Stalingrad) is the capital of the Volgograd region located in the southeast of the European part of Russia, on the banks of the Volga River.The city stretches for 90 km along the right bank of the Volga River.You can get to the left bank of the Volga via the dam of the hydroelec power station or Volgograd bridge.The Volga-Don Canal begins in the southern part of the city connecting Volgograd with the Caspian,Black, Baltic and White Seas,Moscow and St.Petersburg.Volgograd,due to its favorable transportation and geographical position and high industrial potential,plays an important role in the socio-economic development of the South of Russia .It is an important industrial center:aluminum,steel,chemical production,oil refining,shipbuilding , machinery and vehicles manufacturing.Volgograd hydroelectric power station is located in the north of the city.Volgograd has the status of “Hero City” because of the Battle of Stalingrad that took place here during the Second World War.Volgograd International Airport Gumrak,located about 15 km from the city center.The climate is temperate continental.Winters are mild,with frequent thaws,summers are hot and long.The average temperature in January -minus 6.3 degrees Celsius,in July-plus 23.6 degrees Celsius.The population of Volgograd is about 1,050,000,the area-859 sq. km.
The first settlement on the territory of present Volgograd was founded presumably in 1555.In 1589,it was first mentioned in the historical materials as a small fort called Tsaritsyn,standing on an island at the confluence of the Tsaritsa and the Volga rivers.The fort was named after the Tsaritsa River.At the beginning of the 17th century,Tsaritsyn burned down and was newly rebuilt on the right bank of the Volga in 1615.The fortress was an important part of the Russian southern defense line.The reforms of Peter I greatly increased the country’s power (organization of the army,industry and government).In the 1750s,the Russian expansion to the Crimea,the Caucasus and Central Asia started.Tsaritsyn was located far from these regions and therefore began to turn in a small peaceful provincial town.In the 19th century,it became a large river port and trade center.After the abolition of serfdom in 1861,the rapid growth of the town’s industry began, aided by convenient transport routes-the Volga River and developed railway network.In 1880,an oil refinery of “Nobel” company came into operation,Russia’s largest oil storage facilities were built here.At the beginning of the 20th century,there were more than 230 factories in Tsaritsyn.In 1913,the population of the town was about 130,000.In 1918-1920 , during the Civil War in Russia,Tsaritsyn became a place of fierce fighting. In 1925, the city was renamed in honor of Stalin.Stalingrad became one of the centers of the Soviet heavy industry.During the the Second World War,the Battle of Stalingrad took place here.It was one of the turning points of the war, one of the biggest battles in history.Stalingrad was completely destroyed during the battle that lasted almost seven months.The city’s population was only about 32,000 inhabitants,the population before the war-about 450,000. 41,685 houses were destroyed (90.5%). In the 1950s, a large-scale construction of monumental buildings in the style of Stalin’s empire began. These buildings still determine the appearance of the city today.In 1961, Stalingrad was renamed again as part of Nikita Khrushchev’s de-Stalinization program.The city received the name Volgograd meaning “city on the Volga River”.In 1967,the memorial complex of Mamaev Kurgan was built in memory of the Battle of Stalingrad.In 1989, the city’s population exceeded 1 million.
Places of interest and other cultural institutions
The Historical and Memorial Complex Mamayev Kurgan,The Museum-Reserve “The Battle of Stalingrad”-the largest and most famous museum in Volgograd that includes Gerhardt’s Mill,the panorama of the Battle of Stalingrad (the biggest picture in Russia),an exhibition of Soviet military vehicles of the 1940s, Volgograd Memorial and Historical Museum.
Volgograd Regional Museum of Local Lore,The Historical,Ethnographic and Architectural Museum-Reserve “Old Sarepta” dedicated to the memory of German colonists of the 18th century, Volgograd Museum of Fine Arts named after I.I. Mashkov,Volgograd Regional Children’s Art Gallery.
State Don Cossack Theater,Regional Puppet Theater,Youth Theater, Municipal Musical Theater,New Experimental Theater,State Theater “Tsaritsyn opera”, Regional Philharmonic,Planetarium.
Krasnodar is a city located in southern Russia, the capital of Krasnodar Krai.It is also known as the southern capital of Russia. From 1794 to 1920, the town was called Yekaterinodar (Ekaterinodar).The city stands on the right bank of the Kuban River,about 120-150 km from the Black and Azov Seas,1,340 km south of Moscow.Krasnodar is a major industrial center in Southern Russia.The main directions of industrial activity:instrumentation and metalworking,production of construction materials ,sewing and knitting,furniture,tobacco products,food and agricultural products.Krasnodar has an International Airport “Pashkovsky”,located in the eastern part of the city.The city is located in the temperate climate zone.The average temperature in January is plus 0.6 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 24.1 degrees Celsius.The population of Krasnodar is about 980,000, the area-339 sq. km.
The town was founded in the year of 1794, and was named Ekaterinodar meaning “Catherine’s Gift” (the Russian Empress Catherine the Great gave the Kuban region lands to the Cossacks).Ekaterinodar became an important center of the Kuban Cossacks in the first half of the 19th century. It received a town status in 1867. The town became a major trade and transport center of the North-Caucasian region after the construction of the railway Tikhoretsk-Ekaterinodar-Novorossiysk in 1870-1880-ies.The population of the town was about 45,000 in 1888.It was one of the centers of resistance after the Bolshevik revolution of 1917.A large number of the Kuban Cossacks were fighting with the Red Army.During the Russian Civil War,Ekaterinodar de facto was the capital of the White south of Russia .In 1920,Ekaterinodar received new name-Krasnodar.There are two meanings of the word “Krasny ”:“beautiful” or “red”;the word “dar” means “gift”.The city was captured by the German army in August,1942,and was liberated by the Soviet forces in February, 1943.
Krasnodar places of interest and other cultural institutions
The building of Krasnodar Philharmonic Society,M.S.Kuznetsov’s house,The monument “Zaporozhye Cossacks Writing a Letter to the Turkish Sultan”, iKrasnaya and Gorky streets,.Alexander Triumphal Arch,Theater Square,Kuban State University,Kuban State Agricultural University,Art and Culture University, Kuban State Medical Academy.
Regional Art Museum named after F.A.Kovalenko,State Historical and Archaeological Museum-named after E.D.Felitsyn,Museum of Kuban Postal Services,Regional Showroom of Fine Arts,Museum of Military Equipment in the Park named after the 30th anniversary of Victory,Kuban Literary Museum, House-Museum of Vladimir Vysotsky,Museum of Bodybuilding “Samson”, Museum of the History of the North Caucasian Railway, Museum of the Cossacks.
State Academic Drama Theater named after Gorky,Musical Theater, Regional Puppet Theater,Youth Theater,Krasnodar State Circus,Krasnodar Philharmonic named after Grigory Ponomarenko,Concert Hall of the Kuban Cossack Choir, New Puppet Theater.
Saratov city,located in the southeast of the European part of Russia,on the right bank of the Volga River.The capital of the Saratov region,it is located about 840 km south-east of Moscow.It is an important cultural,economic and educational center of the Volga region.Saratov is an important industrial center of the Volga River area.Machine-building,oil and chemical industries are well developed.About 70% of the industrial product of Saratov is produced by large engineering plants.The city stretches for 34 km along the Volga.The central and southern parts of Saratov are situated in the valley, surrounded on three sides by low mountains of Volga Uplands:Sokolovaya (165 meters),Lysaya (286 m), Lopatina (274m), Altynnaya (251m), Uvek (135m). Saratov climate is temperate continental.The city has long moderately cold winters and hot,often dry summers.The average temperature in February (the coldest month) is minus 8.1 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 22.4 degrees Celsius.The population of Saratov is about 880,000, the area-394 sq. km.
There are several hypotheses of origin of the name of Saratov.The first says that it is connected with the Turkic phrase “Saryk Atov” meaning “hawk island”. Another one says that it is from the Tatar phrase “Sary Tau” meaning “yellow mountain”(Saratov is surrounded by several sandy hills).The last settlement that existed before the foundation of Saratov was destroyed in 1395-1396, during the invasion of Tamerlane,who ruined Uvek (Ukek)-one of the towns of the Golden Horde.After the military campaigns of the Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible against the Khanate of Kazan (1552) and the Khanate of Astrakhan (1556),Russian kingdom received vast territory of the Volga River region.At the end of the 16th century,to make the Volga River safe for merchant ships and defend the southeastern border of the state,several fortress were built along its banks.Samara fortress was founded in 1586 ,Tsaritsyn (Volgograd)-in 1589. The town of Saratov was founded in 1590,halfway between Samara and Tsaritsyn.In 1674,the town was moved to the right bank of the Volga,in the area of the current Museum Square.The favorable location of Saratov at the intersection of the shortest overland route to Moscow and the water route from the lower reaches of the Volga and the Caspian Sea made the town a major center of trade in fish and salt.In 1763,foreigners were invited to settle on vacant lands of the Volga region,a large number of German settlers came here. Saratov continued to develop and the following buildings were opened:public school (1786),printing house (1794),hospital (1806),theater (1810), gymnasium (1820),Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (1825),Transfiguration Cathedral (1826).The War of 1812 brought some changes in the life of Saratov. In1813, French prisoners were exiled here, they were used in public works. Later, a lot of them took Russian citizenship and remained in Saratov. In memory of the victory over Napoleon,Alexander Nevsky Cathedral was built in the center of the town.In 1828,Saratov Tobacco Factory was opened,one of the first in Russia.In 1844 ,the new building of the City Duma was completed.The Volga River become the main transport artery of the Russian Empire and Saratov became a major river port.In 1871, Tambov-Saratov Railroad connected the town with Russia’s railway network.It was a powerful impetus to the further development of Saratov.In 1876, the first stationary circus in Russia was built here.In 1908,the tram appeared in the town. Saratov tram system is one of the oldest tram systems in Russia.Until the end of the 1920s, Saratov remained the largest city on the Volga and was often called “the capital of the Volga region”.Also it should be mentioned that the city was home to the Volga Germans for a long time.The town of Pokrovsk (Engels) located just across the Volga River was the capital of the German autonomous region with a population of about 800,000 people.A lot of them (about 400,000) were exiled to Siberia and Kazakhstan at the beginning of the Second World War. Later,in the 1980s,most of the Volga Germans emigrated to Germany.During the Second World War, a number of factories and military schools were evacuated to Saratov. The city became a large industrial center of the Soviet Union. Saratov had the status of “closed city” (no foreigners were allowed to visit it), because it was a major aerospace center.
Places of Interest and other cultural institutions
The historical center of Saratov consists of a number of buildings constructed in the late 19th-mid-20th centuries.Kirov Avenue,Cosmonauts Embankment of Saratov,Chernyshevskogo Street,Holy Trinity Cathedral,Museum Square,Park of Culture, Sovetskaya Street Astrakhanskaya Street.
Art Museum named after A.N.Radishchev, Regional Museum of Local Lore,State Museum of Battle Glory on Sokolovaya mountain,The Museum of K.A.Fedin,The House Museum of N.G.Chernyshevsky ,Ethnographical museum,House-Museum of V.E.Borisov-Musatov,House-Museum of P.V. Kuznetsov, The Museum of Yuri Gagarin,Glass Museum.
Academic Theater of Opera and Ballet,Academic Drama Theater named after I.A.Slonov,Academic Theater of Young Spectators named after Y.P.Kiselev, Puppet Theater “Teremok” ,Theater of Russian Comedy, New Drama Theater “Version”,Theater of Magic and Tricks “Samokat”, the Russia’s first professional theater of magic and tricks,Saratov Regional Philharmonic named after A.G. Schnittke, State Conservatory named after L.V.Sobinov,Planetarium,Saratov Circus, the first Russian stationary circus.
Tyumen is a capital of the Tyumen region,the first Russian city in Siberia.It is located in Western Siberia on the Tura River flowing into the Tobol River. The distance to Moscow is 2,081 km.The main airport of Tyumen is an International Airport “Roshchino”.The climate is similar to sharply continental. The average temperature in January is minus 15 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 18.8 degrees Celsius .The population of Tyumen is about 780,600, the area-235 sq. km.
The history of the origin of the name of Tyumen is not clear. Tatar legends bound it with the word “tumen” meaning “ten thousandth army”. In modern language of Tyumen Tatars the word “tyumen” means “lowland”.Tuymen was founded on an ancient caravan route from Central Asia to the Volga River region,on the so called “Tyumen portage”,for which nomads of Southern Siberia were fighting for ages. Waterways connected Tyumen with the Far North and the Far East.The first inhabitants of Tyumen were boyars, streltsy and Cossacks. It was attacked by Tatars and Kalmyks in the first years of its existence. Gradually, as the military threat diminished, the inhabitants of the town started to learn handicrafts: blacksmithing, tanning, bell making.In the 13th-16th centuries,Chingi-Tura,the capital of Tyumen khanate,was located on the banks of the Tyumenka River.In 1586,in accordance with the decree of Tsar Fyodor Ivanovich,construction of Tyumensky stockaded town began not far from the remains of Chingi-Tura.A large cape was chosen for the fortress,it was protected by ravines and the Tyumenka River from the west and the Tura River from the east.In 1695,a fire destroyed the wooden town.This led to the development of stone building.In 1709,Tyumen became a part of the Siberian province. At the beginning of the 18th century, the town was a major transit point for trade (trade routes from China and Siberia).In 1763,the population of Tyumen was 6,593 people.During this period, Tyumen became famous for its tanning factories.In the 19th century,Tyumen began to develop rapidly while the town of Tobolsk was in decline.Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway, which passed through the town, particularly contributed to this. Count Constantine Possiet insisted that this railroad should pass through Tyumen, that’s why he was awarded the title of honorary citizen of the town.In 1836, the first in Siberia steamship was launched in Tyumen.The town became one of Russia’s largest shipbuilding centers. Tanning was the main production in Tyumen in the 19th century.In the second half of the 19th century, there were up to seventy tanneries in the town. Tyumen was also an important center of trade. In 1912, economic importance of the town increased with the construction of the railroad to Omsk.By the early 20th century,the number of residents of Tyumen reached 30 thousand.Tyumen became the capital of the newly created Tyumen region in 1944. During the Second World War, the local industries grew intensely because of the plants evacuated from the European part of the USSR.In the 1960s,rich oil and natural gas reserves were discovered in the Tyumen region.Tyumen received another boost to its development at this time as the capital of the oil-producing region.Tyumen became a transit point for the delivery of goods to the North.At this time,new specialized enterprises,institutes,institutions of higher education were opened in the city.In 1966,construction of the railway Tyumen-Tobolsk-Surgut-Nizhnevartovsk began.
Tyumen places of interest and other cultural institutions
Not far from the city, there are several hot (37-50 degrees Celsius) geothermal sources that have balneological properties. They are popular among the locals and residents of neighboring regions.
Fine Arts Museum,The Museum Complex named after Ivan Slovtsov,Museum-House of Masharov, Museum-Gallery of Dolls and Toys,Museum “Old furniture of Tyumen”,Museum-Estate of Kolokolnikov-the only preserved classic merchant’s manor in Tyumen,Museum of the History of Siberian Distilling, Local History Museum “City Council”,Modern Art Gallery ,Archeological Museum.
Drama Theater-the largest drama theater in Russia, Puppet Theater, Youth Theater “Angagement” named after V.S.Zagoruiko,Tyumen Philharmonic, Embankment of the Tura River,Siberian Cats Park, Tyumen Park of Culture and Leisure.
Tolyatti city,located in the middle reaches of the Volga River,on its left bank.It is a major center of automotive and chemical industries,as well as rail,river and road transport,the largest city in the country which is not a regional capital. Tolyatti stretches for 30 km along the Volga River,and consists of three districts :Avtozavodsky,Central and Komsomolsky.Tolyatti is often called the “green city” because of the large number of green plantations and forests.Tolyatti is a large industrial and economic center of Russia. “AvtoVAZ” is the main enterprise of the city. Also there is an automobile plant of “GM-AvtoVAZ” company and a lot of plants producing various parts for cars.Chemical industry is well developed in the city-“TolyattiAzot”,the largest in the world ammonia producer,is located here.The plant supplies its products through a unique ammonia pipeline “Tolyatti-Odessa”.The climate is temperate continental with hot summers and cold winters.he average temperature in January is minus 10,6 degrees Celsius, in July-plus 20.9 degrees Celsius. The population of Tolyatti is about 750,600, the area- 315 sq. km.
The town was founded by Vasily Tatishev as a fortress called Stavropol to protect the territory of the Russian Empire from nomad raids in 1737.During the 19th century the town’s population hardly grew,and was about 6 thousand people.By the 1950s,there were only about 12,000 people in the town.When Zhigulyovskaya hydro power station and Kyubyshev water reservoir were constructed ,almost the whole town was moved to a new location.In 1964, the city was renamed in honor of the General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party Palmiro Togliatti.In 1966,together with the Italian automaker FIAT, construction of the Volga Automobile Plant,the largest in the USSR,began.In 1964-1970,the population of the city doubled.According to 1970 census, 251,000 people lived in Tolyatti.
Tolyatti places of interst and other cultural institutions
There are more than 160 historical and cultural monuments in Tolyatti-the city-building monuments and memorial boards. The monuments of city-building are represented by separate objects as well as whole complexes. These are the buildings preserved from the old flooded town and moved to the new city as well as those built in the 1950s. Svobody (Freedom) Square,Eternal Fire,Glory Obelisk, Varvarinskaya Church, House of Culture “Tolyatti”.
Puppet Theater “Pilgrim”,Dramatic theater “Koleso”,Theater “Dilizhans” ,Youth Drama Theater,Tolyatti Philharmonic.
Tolyatti Museum of Local Lore and Art Museum,Museum of Historical and Cultural Heritage of Tolyatti,“Heritage” museum complex,Museum of Technical Equipment of AvtoVAZ,Museum of Moonshining,Art Gallery, Culture and Exhibition Center “Kaleidoscope”,Art Gallery “The House of Nine”.